Новини римської археології

Питання археології античного світу

Re: Новини римської археології

Повідомлення L. Flavivs Anaticvla » 22 серпня 2017, 10:52

На сході Франції археологи відкрили нові Помпеї! Знахідка римського міста, замороженого в часі, може претендувати на найбільше відкриття у римській археології останніх 50 років. Серед знахідок - меч і повний комплект обладунку lorica segmentata

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/archeolo ... e/?fref=gc

Відео на ютубі: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ep826NSQ2EM
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L. Flavivs Anaticvla
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Re: Новини римської археології

Повідомлення L. Flavivs Anaticvla » 01 жовтня 2017, 21:44

На місці битви при Егатських островах знайдено карфагенський шолом:

Naval archaeologists think they’ve found the only example of armor from Carthage to survive the destruction of the city-state by Rome in 146BC.
The helmet, recovered from the site of the Battle of the Egadi Islands, northwest of Sicily, is dramatically different from the Celtic style worn across Europe, popularly known as a Roman helmet.
It appears to have a nose guard, a broad brim protecting the back of the neck from ear to ear, and a high, narrow crest, said Dr Jeff Royal, director of archaeology at the RPM Nautical Foundation in Florida.
Roman helmets, called montefortinos, are easily identified, said Dr Royal from the deck of his foundation’s ship, RV Hercules. “They look like half a watermelon with a knob on top and cheek flaps down the side that tie at the chin.”
The suspected Carthaginian helmet, heavily encrusted after more than two-millennia under the Mediterranean Sea, is currently undergoing cleaning and conservation that should eventually reveal more details.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/paulrodgers ... ff-sicily/

Происхождение шлема - место битвы при Эгатских островах, которой закончилась Первая Пуническая война между Римом и Карфагеном.
Археологи обнаружили предположительно карфагенский шлем на месте битвы при Эгатских островах (к северу от Сицилии), положившей конец Первой Пунической войне (264-241 до н.э.). Это единственная сохранившаяся часть доспехов из Карфагена, найденная на месте битвы, сообщил доктор Джефф Роял (Jeff Royal) из флоридского фонда RPM Nautical.
Находка сильно отличается от шлемов типа Монтефортино, широко распространённых в Европе. Римские шлемы типа Монтефертино легко идентифицируются. Они имеют полусферическую или куполообразную форму, навершие в виде небольшой шишки или гнезда для плюмажа. Задняя часть шлема заканчивалась отогнутым полукруглым щитком, который защищал шею от удара сверху. Снизу подвешивались бронзовые щитки-«нащёчники».
Предполагаемый карфагенский шлем имеет наносник, широкие поля, защищающие шею от уха до уха, а также высокий, узкий гребень. Находка сильно коррозирована, поскольку пролежала на морском дне более двух тысячелетий. Сейчас она проходит очистку и консервацию, которая позволит получить более подробную информацию.



Найденные в предыдущих сезонах монтефортинские шлемы опубликованы в статье: S. Tusa and J. Royal. The landscape of the naval battle at the Egadi Islands (241 B.C.). Journal of Roman Archaeology 25, 2012. Как мы видим, по крайней мере, один шлем (PW11-0030) содержит граффито с пунийской буквой "" ("Хе") или кельтиберской "E".

Helmets (Table 2)

Helping to confirm sector PW-A as the battle zone are at least 8 bronze helmets, scattered mostly in a concentrated area (see below). Two cheekpieces (both for the left side, so representative of two helmets) and one hinge connection were also found within the Egadi 6 ram. Seven helmets lay in a limited area of c.25 m2; the eighth was found in the rocks c.200 m to the southwest, within 30 m of the location of Egadi 6. All were lying on the bottom and not buried to any significant degree. A further helmet (now in the Favignana Maritime Museum) was reportedly raised from sector PW-A before 2005 by fishermen with static nets. Four helmets, all of the Montefortino type, were raised in 2011 (fig. 11, indicated by PW11 numbers); sections of the dome were missing on two (PW11-0010 and PW11-0031), while the other two were intact. Even though there is no standardization in their size, these four helmets exhibit a number of similar characteristics: {↓26} manufacture from cast bronze that was then worked into a thin dome; a dome with a solid crest knob at its apex (missing on PW11-1101); a thickened lower rim projecting on the back side as a neck guard; a rope motif running around the lower rim and neck guard (fig. 11); and, inside the rope pattern, at least two incised lines (difficult to discern on PW11-0010) around the rim and neck guard. The same decorative features are present on the example in the Favignana museum. After cleaning of PW11-0010, PW11-0011 and PW11-0032, the rope pattern is seen to be twisted in opposite directions on the left and right sides until meeting at the center line. An additional basket-weave pattern runs inside the rope pattern and below the incised lines of the neck guard on PW11-0010. All of the crest knobs seem to be cast and appear seamlessly integrated with the helmets; they are solid metal in their upper portion and do not have holes for attachments. Where discernible, the crest knobs are decorated with a molded pattern of a central circular element with outward radiating spokes. What appears to be possibly a semicircular chaplet is located at the center front edge of helmet PW11-0010; no attachment evidence is found on the interior opposite this feature.
Both bronze cheekpieces (fig. 9) were thin (from 1.0 mm at their edges to c.2.0 mm at their centers) and both have two forward projections for guarding the cheekbone and jaw. The more intact (PW11-034-002) is nearly 15.0 cm long and 8.5 cm wide, with forward projections c.3.0 cm long. The bronze hinge (PW11-034-003), c.11.0 cm long, found within the Egadi 6 ram, aligns perfectly with the opposite hinge projections on the cheekpieces. The hinge itself is a flattened bar with two flat projections at each end curled on their extremity; the angle of the curl when found was c.180°. Projections for hinge connections at the top of cheekpiece PW11-034-002 were formed from similarly-folded flat projections, and the angle of their curl was also c.180°. At some point the cheekpieces and hinge were separated from their respective helmets, when the curled projections pulled open to some degree; originally they were folded by more than 180° to secure them tightly. Centrally at the top of the hinge piece, on the opposite side from the projections, is a portion of an {↓27} upward-projecting ring (inner diameter c.0.4-0.5 cm) to hold the fastener connecting the cheekpiece to the helmet; this connector allowed the cheekpiece to swing and maintain a roughly perpendicular angle to horizontal blows. Given the angle of the hinge attachments and the shape of the cheekpieces, their lower portion would have hung slightly canted forward so as to protect both the ear and jaw. After cleaning, the hinge connections on the helmets are clearly discernible on the interior where part of the hinge survived. There are two hinge connections on each side, situated forward of the midline so as to align with the jaws forward of the ears. As there are two attachment points for each cheekpiece on these helmets, they differ from the helmet-hinge attachment for PW11-034-003 that has a single attachment point. An additional hinge attachment was found at the center point of the neck guards of each helmet. Here a single pin held some type of hinge on the underside of the neck guard, where an additional guard was attached.

Italy of the 4th c. B.C. saw wide variations in bronze weaponry, including helmet styles, which included the Attic and Chalcidian types in Etruria, the Negau type in N Italy, and the Apulo-Corinthian type in S Italy. A significant change in Roman weaponry occurred with the development of the maniple at the end of the 4th c. B.C. This included adoption of the Montefortino type of helmet (galea or cassis), an Italo-Celtic hybrid originating in what is now France and Austria during the 5th c. B.C. This helmet style is the most prominent in Spain, Gaul and Italy during the 3rd c.27 It is unclear what types of armor Carthaginian marines or infantry utilized, but we know they employed Celto-Iberian mercenaries as well as mercenaries from S Italy. Therefore it is not possible to be sure of the cultural affiliation of the helmets based solely on their style, but a graffito incised over the molded decorative pattern on the crest knob of helmet PW11-0030 (fig. 11), which appears to form a letter corresponding to a Punic “he” (H) or Celto-Iberian “E”,28 may give a clue.

The helmets from sector PW-A derive from an artifact assemblage with a known context in the mid-3rd c., whereas other examples of Montefortino helmets are rare outside funerary or votive deposits (excavations on land or battle sites typically do not yield helmets in context29) and as a result their chronology is less secure. Many examples come from 4th- to 2nd-c. graves, such as the Alfedena necropolis, burials at Chieti (Contrada Sant’Anna), Villafonsina and Villamagna in Chieti, and Pretoro, or from the votive deposit at the sanctuary of Pietrabbondante. Those helmets may be spoils from Roman forces or their Campanian-Sabellian allies. Comparative examples are found at the Museo Guarnacci (V54), dated to the 4th c., and in the British Museum (dated to the era of the Punic Wars); there are also some 3rd-c. examples from Perugia and Bologna (fig. 11).30 The form of the Egadi cheekpieces is comparable to the examples shown in fig. 11; they are also of a design common to later finds known from the Agen and Port areas, which came to typify that used throughout the Republic.31 However, the comparative examples of fig. 11 have a more rounded dome than the somewhat pointed and taller domes of the Egadi helmets.
27. Goldman (forthcoming) discusses the history of Republican-era armor and the archaeological evidence.
28. P. Schmitz kindly reviewed this graffito. There does not appear to be an analogous Latin character after the 6th c. B.C., nor any such Greek letter-form.
29. Bishop and Coulston 2006, 65.
30. The example from the British Museum (inv. AN 14094001, reg. num. 1975,0603.1, Greek and Roman Antiquities cat. no. Bronze 2726) is 21.7 cm in diameter and 19.2 cm high, with a slightly shorter crest knob. See other comparative examples in fig. 11.
31. Bishop and Coulston 2006, 65.

http://forum.xlegio.ru/forums/thread-vi ... 75#M132975




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Re: Новини римської археології

Повідомлення L. Flavivs Anaticvla » 07 серпня 2018, 14:44

Давньоримська бібліотека була відкрита на території німецького міста Кьольн

Ancient Roman library discovered beneath German city
Beneath the soil in Cologne, Germany, lies a bibliophile's dream: an ancient Roman library that once held up to 20,000 scrolls, according to news reports.

Archaeologists discovered the epic structure in 2017 while they were excavating the grounds of a Protestant church to build a new community center. Considering Cologne is one of Germany's oldest cities, founded in A.D. 50, it's no surprise that it still has structures dating back to Roman times.

However, archaeologists didn't figure out that the structure was a library until they found mysterious holes in the walls, each measuring about 31 inches by 20 inches (80 by 50 centimeters), The Guardian reported.

The niches in the wall were likely "cupboards for the scrolls," Dirk Schmitz, an archaeologist at the Roman-Germanic Museum in Cologne, told The Guardian. "They are very particular to libraries — you can see the same ones in the library at Ephesus [in Turkey]." [Photos: Centuries of History Revealed Beneath Roman Ruins]

While it's anyone's guess as to how many scrolls the library once housed, it's fair to say the number would have been "quite huge — maybe 20,000," Schmitz said. He noted that the newfound library is slightly smaller than the Celsus Library in Ephesus, which was built in A.D. 117. Even so, its discovery is "really incredible — a spectacular find," Schmitz said.

"[It] is, at a minimum, the earliest library in Germany, and perhaps in the northwest Roman provinces," he said. "Perhaps there are a lot of Roman towns that have libraries, but they haven't been excavated. If we had just found the foundations, we wouldn't have known it was a library. It was because it had walls, with the niches, that we could tell."

The ancient Romans chose a good spot for the building, he noted.

"It is in the middle of Cologne, in the marketplace, or forum: the public space in the city center," Schmitz said. "It is built of very strong materials, and such buildings, because they are so huge, were public."

During its heyday, the library was probably two stories tall and measured about 65 feet by 30 feet (20 by 9 meters), and an extension was added later, Cologne historic preservation official Marcus Trier told Deutsche Welle (DW), a German news outlet. This extension was likely an alcove where a statue of Minerva, the Roman goddess counterpart to Greece's Athena, once stood, Schmitz told The Art Newspaper.

The ancient library's remains will be integrated into the new church community center, giving access to visitors and future archaeologists, DW reported.

http://www.foxnews.com/science/2018/08/ ... -city.html

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